A Comparative and Analytical Study of the Approaches to the Protection of Wildlife Law in the Ramsar, CITES and Bonn Conventions

Document Type : Original Article


Associate Professor, Public&International law Department,Qom University



Wild animals need special attention because of their significance from the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic points of view. There are numerous international instruments and documents in the field of international wildlife law (IWL). Among them, there are three well-known instruments namely the Ramsar, Bonn, and CITES Conventions. In the present piece, these Conventions are studied comparatively in order to find out their approaches toward the protection of wildlife. In doing so, the author, first and foremost, provides a brief overview of these Conventions. Thereafter, their approaches toward wildlife protection would be analyzed. The methodological approach of this research includes analysis of wildlife protection through descriptive and normative explanation of the Ramsar, Bonn, and CITES Conventions. According to the findings of this study, reasonable and wise use of wetlands (the approach of the Ramsar Convention), special attention to migratory birds (the approach of the Bonn Convention), and the regulation of international wildlife trade (the approach of CITES) are three main and prevalent approaches in these instruments. Furthermore, it appears that CITES has played a more important and effective role in IWL and protection of wildlife. It is due to the fact that this Convention has more operative tools and its State Parties have undertaken more extensive and practical obligations.


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