Guide for Authors

Iranian Journal of International and Comparative Law
Guide for Authors according to OSCOLA Reference Style

General Remarks
Please read the guidelines below then visit the Iranian Journal of International and Comparative Law (IJICL) submission site http://ijicl.qom.ac.ir/contacts?_action=loginForm  to login and submit your article online. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

•    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of IJICL (see: http://ijicl.qom.ac.ir/journal/aim_scope) will be reviewed.
•    Articles are published in English, using American English spelling and grammar. The preferred reference source is the Webster Dictionary.
•    At least 60% of the resources of papers submitted to IJICL must be originally in English except manuscripts which exclusively relate to Islamic researches. 
•    Authors are invited to send their manuscripts for IJICL in these formats: Full Article, Short Article (Insight), State Practice and Book Review. Lengths of manuscripts are as follows: 1) Full article (including footnotes): 7.000-12.000 words; 2) Insight (including footnote): 2000-4000 words; 3) State practice: 2.000-5.000 words; 4) Book reviews: 1.500- 3.000 words. Longer articles, etc., are exceptionally acceptable, provided that there is a significant reason for exceeding the indicated number.
•    All submitted manuscripts should contribute innovatively to the academic debate and be conducted through a descriptive-analytical approach. State Practice is a brief legal assessment of laws, judicial decisions, diplomatic positions, state acts etc. relating to one or more States by proper citations. Insight is a brief legal assessment of a new event in international arena. There must be at least 20, 15, and 10 references for Full Articles, Insights, and State Practice respectively. Book Review is a brief review and criticize of a new book relating to international or comparative law or law of Iran.
•    The preferred font and size for text, footnotes and bibliography are Times New Roman 12 pt. Times New Roman 10, and Times New Roman 11 pt. respectively. 
•    A short abstract (150-250 words) and 5-7 keywords should be submitted and will be published with the article. 
•    IJICL adheres to the OSCOLA reference style. Following is the abridged guide for authors according to OSCOLA referencing style. For more information about this system of citation and to ensure your manuscript conforms to it view 
https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxlaw/oscola_4th_edn_hart_2012.pdf   

The OSCOLA style is a footnote referencing system. This means it consists of three elements.
1.    Citation: When you acknowledge a source in the text, you place a footnote marker 1 at the end of the relevant sentence. If you have several references in close together, the number can be placed at the end of the relevant phrase or word. 
2.    Footnote: This is the reference that appears at the bottom of the guide. These should be brief as they should identify the source, not provide additional information.
3.    Bibliography: A list of all the sources you have cited in your work. This should be provided at the end of the essay.
Note: Whenever you paraphrase or quote a source or use the ideas of another person, you need to provide a reference in a footnote.  Your footnotes should be numbered continuously through your document, starting at 1.
Note: You don't always need a footnote for legislation if you have provided sufficient information about the legislation within the text.
Note: Do not use full stops in abbreviations and at the end of the citation in bibliography for books and articles. Separate citations with a semi-colon.

How to Cite Different Sources in OSCOLA Referencing System

A) Books:
1)    Book (footnote): Author(s), Title (edition, Publisher | year) page number.
Example: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985) 268.
2)    Book (bibliography): Author(s), Title (edition, Publisher | year) (no full stop)
Example: Hobbes T, Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985)
3)    Chapter in an Edited Book (footnote): Author(s), 'Chapter Title', in Editor (ed), Book Title (edition, Publisher | year) page number.
Example: Justine Pila, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in William H Dutton and Paul W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities in the Century of Information (MIT Press 2010) 154.
4)    Chapter in an Edited Book (bibliography): Author(s), 'Chapter Title', in Editor (ed), Book Title (edition, Publisher | year) (no full stop)
Example: Pila J, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in W H Dutton and P W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities in the Century of Information (MIT Press 2010) 
Note: For two or three authors, all named authors must be included. You must insert an 'and' before the last author's name. For three plus authors, include the name of first authors and then insert "and others" both in footnote and bibliography. 

B) Theses and Dissertations
1)    Thesis (footnote): Author(s), 'Title' (type of thesis/dissertation, University | year of completion) page number.
Example: Javan Herberg, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989) 54.
2)    Thesis (bibliography): Author(s), 'Title' (type of thesis/dissertation, University | year of completion).
Example: Herberg J, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989).

C) Articles
1)    Journal Article (footnote): Author(s), │’title’ │(year) │volume │journal name or abbreviation │first page of article, the page(s) used.
Note 1: Use [ ]  if the date of publication is needed to find the article e.g. there is no volume number.
Note 2: Use ( ) if the date of publication is NOT needed to find the article e.g. there is a volume number.
Example (Note 1 above): Paul Craig, 'Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law'  [2005] PL 440, 443.
Example (Note 2 above): Alison L Young, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554.
2)    Journal Article (bibliography): Author(s), │’title’ │(year) │volume │journal name or abbreviation │first page of article (no full stop)
Example (Note 1 above): Craig P, 'Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law'  [2005] PL 440
Example (Note 2 above): Young AL, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554
Note: When pinpointing (referring to a specific page in an article) put the first page of the article followed by a comma, a space and the page of the pinpoint. Pinpointing is not used in the bibliography.
3)    Forthcoming Article: Forthcoming (not yet published) articles are cited in the same way as published article, but follow the citation with '(forthcoming)' in footnote only.
Example (footnote): Virginie Barral, 'Towards Judicial Coordination for Good Water Governance' ICLQ (forthcoming). 
Example (bibliography): Barral V, 'Towards Judicial Coordination for Good Water Governance' ICLQ
4)    Article in Online Journals: Author(s), ‘Title’│(year) volume (issue) journal name or abbreviation│link of the journal │date of access
Example (footnote): John M Finnis, 'On Public Reason' (2006) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper 1/2007, 8 <http://ssrn.com/abstract=955815> accessed 18 November 2009.
Example (bibliography): Finnis JM, 'On Public Reason' (2006) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper 1/2007, 8 <http://ssrn.com/abstract=955815> accessed 18 November 2009

D) International Law Sources
1) International Treaties
Note 1: If parties can accede to the treaty (which will be the case for most multilateral treaties), cite the full date upon which the treaty was opened for signature. Otherwise, cite the date that it was signed or adopted. If available, then give the date it entered into force. If there is both a date of adoption and a date on which the treaty opened for signature, cite the dates in that order. It is not necessary to list the parties to a multilateral treaty, but parties to a bilateral treaty should be included in parentheses immediately after the title, with the names of the parties separated by an en-dash.
Note 2: Reference to articles of the treaty should give only the article number, not the title of the article (if there is a title). Use either ‘article’ or the abbreviation ‘art’ in the text, and the abbreviation in the footnotes.
a) UN Treaty Series 
Example: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR) | art. number (only in footnote)
b) League of Nations Treaties Series and Consolidated Treaty Series: Note that sometimes the date the treaty entered into force will not be available, so just show the date the treaty was signed or adopted.
Example:  Slavery Convention (adopted 25 September 1926, entered into force 9 March 1927) 60 LNTS 253 | art. number (only in footnote)
c) Bilateral Treaties: Note that give the names of parties to a bilateral treaty in parentheses immediately after the title, if required for clarity.
Example: Agreement Concerning the Sojourn of Refugees within the Meaning of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees of 31 January 1967) (France–Austria) (adopted 21 October 1974, entered into force 24 July 1975) 985 UNTS 303 | art. number (only in footnote)
2) Regional Treaties
a) European Treaties: Note that Include both the formal and informal/shortened names of the treaty (if the latter exist) in the first reference to a treaty. Give the informal/shortened title in parentheses before the pinpoint reference. The abbreviated titles given in the examples below are intended as a guide only. Authors may choose to create their own abbreviated titles for European treaties.
Example: Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights, as amended) (ECHR) | art. 3 (only in footnote)
Example: Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) | art G5 (only in footnote)
b) Other Regional Treaties: Follow the same pattern as for United Nations treaties, as far as possible. Some regions or countries may have their own specific treaty series, eg the Organization of American States Treaty Series (OAS Treaty Series). However, if cited in the UNTS, LNTS or ILM, use that source.
Example: Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador) (entered into force 16 November 1999) OAS Treaty Series No 69 (1988) reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System OEA/Ser L V/II.82 Doc 6 Rev 1 at 67 (1992) | art. number (only in footnote)
3) ICJ and PCIJ Cases and Decisions
Note 1: The decisions and opinions of the PCIJ are published in the official reports of the ICJ. Yearbooks, judgments, opinions and related documents (Series A–F) from the PCIJ are available at http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/idecisions/icpij.
Note 2: Cite the ICJ Report if available; otherwise cite to the website. Give dates of access for website reports. Cite case names as they appear in the ICJ Reports. In some instances, the word ‘case’ will appear in the title; in other instances it will not.
Example: Corfu Channel Case (UK v Albania) (Merits) [1949] ICJ Rep 4 | para(s). number (only in footnote)
Example: Case of the Free Zones of Upper Savoy and the District of Gex (Switzerland v France) PCIJ Rep Series A/B No 46  | page/para(s) number (only in footnote)
4) ICTY and ICTR Cases and Decisions
Note: Decisions of these tribunals are published in several different reports series. The Judicial Reports/Recueils judiciaires of the ICTY and the Reports of Orders, Decisions and Judgements of the ICTR comprise all public indictments, decisions and judgments issued in a given year (in English and French). Cite ICTY and ICTR decisions as follows: Case name (Decision type) ICTY-year#-case# (date). Alternatively, it is acceptable to cite from International Legal Materials or International Human Rights Reports.
Example: Tadic Case (Judgment) ICTY-94-1 (26 January 2000) | para(s) number (only in footnote)
Example: Prosecutor v Akayesu (Judgment) ICTR-96-4-T, T Ch I (2 September 1998) | para(s) number (only in footnote)
5) ITLOS Judgments and Orders 
Note: The Judgments and Orders delivered in cases submitted to the Tribunal are reproduced in the series Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders, and are also available on the ITLOS website (http://www.itlos.org) under Proceedings and Judgments. Other ITLOS sources, such as resolutions or agreements can be found on the same site under Documents/Publications.
Example: /M/V ‘Saiga’ (No 2) (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines v Guinea) (Provisional Measures, Order of 11 March 1998) ITLOS Reports 1998, 24 | para(s) number (only in footnote)
6) United Nations Documents
Note 1: When citing documents from the major bodies of the United Nations, include the unique document reference numbers that identify both the body from which the document issues and the nature of the document. It is not necessary to cite the Security Council Official Records (UNSCOR) and General Assembly Official Records (GAOR). After the first mention, abbreviate ‘United Nations’ to ‘UN’; ‘UN Security Council’ to ‘UNSC’; ‘UN General Assembly’ to ‘UNGA’; and ‘Resolution’ to ‘Res’. Cite the full names of lesser known, or more specialized, UN organs or bodies, rather than their abbreviations. Do not cite resolution titles, unless it is particularly useful to do so. 
Note 2: Generally speaking, cite UN documents in the following order: author, ‘title’ date document number. Italicize the title of a UN document only if it has been published as a book (ie, it has an ISBN), in which case the UN Doc number is not necessary. Cite full titles in the first citation, and shortened titles thereafter.
Example: UNGA Res 2621 (1970) GAOR 25th Session Supp 16, 10 | para(s) number (only in footnote)
Example: UNSC Presidential Statement 38 (2000) UN Doc S/PRST/2000/38 | para(s) number (only in footnote)
Example: UNGA ‘Report of the Special Committee on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States’ UN GAOR 25th Session Supp No 18 UN Doc A/8018 (1970) | prar(s)/page number (only in footnote)
Example: Report of the Secretary-General, ‘Rape and Abuse of Women in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia’ (1994) UN Doc E/CN.4/1994/5 | para(s)/page number (only in footnote)
Example: UNCHR ‘Compilation and Analysis of Legal Norms, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons’ (5 Dec 1995) UN Doc E/CN.4/1996/52/Add.2 | para(s) number (only in footnote)
Example: UN Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, ‘General Recommendation No 19’ in ‘Note by the Secretariat, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (29 July 1994) UN Doc HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 | para(s) number (only in footnote)
Example:  ILC, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its 42nd Session’ (1 May–20 July 1990) UN Doc A/45/10 | para(s)/page number (only in footnote)

7) Regional Bodies' Documents

Example:  Organization for African Unity (Council of Ministers) ‘Proposals for an OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention and Resolution, Report of Secretary-General’ (OAU Addis Ababa 1992) CM/1710 (L.VI) | para(s)/page number (only in footnote)
Example: Organization of American States, ‘Legal Situation of Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons in the American Hemisphere’ General Assembly Res AG/Res 1214 (XXIII-O/93) (Washington DC 11 June 1993) | para(s)/page number (only in footnote)

8) International Yearbooks
Note: Cite these in the same way as journals/periodicals. If the Yearbook uses roman numerals for volume numbers, use roman numerals in your citation. Where documents are printed in English and French, cite in the language you used, as shown below.
Example: R Jennings, ‘The Role of the International Court of Justice’ (1997) 68 British Ybk Intl L 10 | page number (only in footnote)
Example: ‘Le Conseil de L’Europe: Principales activités pour l’année 1999’ (1999) XLVII Annuaire Européen (C de E) 1 | page number (only in footnote) 

For more information about how to cite international law sources, see: https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxlaw/oscola_2006_citing_international_law.pdf 

 E) Transliteration from Persian and Arabic to English

 1) Consonants

Arabic

Persian

Arabic

Persian

 

s

ص

 

ء

z

ض

 

b

ب

 

t

ط

 

p

پ

 

z

ظ

 

t

ت

 

ع

th

s

ث

 

gh

غ

 

j

ج

 

f

ف

 

ch

چ

 

q

ق

 

h

ح

 

k

ک

 

kh

خ

 

g

گ

 

d

د

 

l

ل

dh

z

ذ

 

m

م

 

r

ر

 

n

ن

 

z

ز

w

v

و

 

zh

ژ

 

h

ه

 

s

س

 

y

ی

 

sh

ش

 

2) Vowels

Long

Diphthong

Short

Persian

Arabic

Persian

Arabic

Persian

Arabic

ا

ā

 

و

aw

ـــَ

a

 

و

ū

 

ی

ay

ــِـ

e

i

ی

ī

 

 

 

ــــُ

o

u

 هfinal

eh

ah