Understanding Islamophobia in Human Rights Context, A Conceptual Analysis of the OIC Initiatives against Hate Speech

Document Type : Original Article


law Department, Qom, Iran



In the past several decades, Islamophobia has developed into a significant term in both popular and technical usages. This term regardless of its original meaning is a terminological construct that involves a variety of concepts such as “discrimination against Muslims” and “hostility toward Islam”. This article attempts to explore various aspects and different manifestations of Islamophobia in the context of human rights. The first part of this paper examines the historical background of the term that was developed in the OIC Human Rights agenda to comprehend the legal aspects of Islamophobia. The second part will focus on the conceptual analysis of Islamophobia which distinguishes between two distinct forms of the term in human rights context. Since, an unambiguous definition of the new terminology of Islamophobia and its manifestations in human rights context not only does limit the scope of this study, but it will define the conceptual boundaries of the term in relation to the remaining terms and concepts that are strongly connected to it. The author concludes that the UN resolutions, the OIC standards and the EU recognize the importance of responsible expression, and realize the necessity of legal frameworks to combat all forms of Islamophobia. In comparison with other associated terms that were used in the UN and the OIC human rights instruments, Islamophobia is an inclusive term that can provide a legal framework which is acceptable by all entities.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 23 January 2024
  • Receive Date: 21 October 2023
  • Revise Date: 24 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 23 January 2024